Evolution of Natural–Landscape Parks -
A Little of Garden Art History

History of garden art goes as far back as to the beginnings of the civilization itself. The existence of gardens and parks goes historically back to the antiquity. Garden creation developed in harmony with building architecture and other kinds of art: sculptures creation and the art of painting. Social, political and economic conditions, national traditions, climatic conditions etc., had great influence on it as well.

Pohľad na zámok z ružovej záhrady If we run through the centuries and jump over antiquity with highly developed garden architecture, we can speak about garden creation in the European geographical space only in the epoch of Renaissance. Geometric symmetry of Renaissance gardens, which were continuation of the residence, evolved in baroque compositions, in which direct Renaissance lines began to break, because baroque garden is the place for dynamics and dramatic thrill. Shapes arise as combinations of curves; plasticity and dynamics are highlighted with the contrast of colours, light and shadow.

The fundamental turning point in the garden formation has came in 18th century in England. More factors contributed to the origination of irregular nature-landscape parks (so called English parks). Even in preceding periods, the whole bunch of English philosophers, poets and statesmen (Bacon, Milton and others) criticised stiffness and formality of baroque gardens, sharply contrasting with natural beauty of the English landscape. In the formation of the new style, there was also the great influence of:

Japonská záhrada Natural-landscape parks actually imitate and idealize the wild nature, their footpaths have lost their decorative nature, they are fully purpose-built and lead the visitor to the individual nature sceneries. Vegetation of trees, which forms scenic corners in the big surfaces of lawns, is essential. The water appears in natural shapes and the terrain is shaped irregularly. „If the park is an idealized country, then the garden is extended dwelling of human.“ – this is known quotation of duke Puckler, creator of natural-landscape parks.

Park in Rusovce represents the phase of later natural-landscape parks.

There are 309 protected historical parks nowadays in Slovakia, nevertheless it can be stated that more styles are often penetrated in them. Park in Topolčianky, Mlyňany, Dolná Krupá, Lednické Rovne, Markušovce and others belong to the most significant natural-landscape parks in Slovakia.

Ing. Zuzana Hudeková